Citation for Avrupa Millî Görüş Teşkilatı

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MLA

Thomä-Venske, Hanns . "Avrupa Millî Görüş Teşkilatı." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. May 18, 2022. <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0086>.

Chicago

Thomä-Venske, Hanns . "Avrupa Millî Görüş Teşkilatı." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0086 (accessed May 18, 2022).

Avrupa Millî Görüş Teşkilatı

In the early 1970s, the first branches of the National Vision (Millî Görüş) organization were founded by Turkish labor migrants in Europe. These groups had close connections to the National Salvation Party (Millî Selamet Partisi, or MSP). The name “Millî Görüş” stands for a philosophy as well as for the organization and is derived from the programmatic book Millî Görüş (Ankara, 1973) of party leader Necmettin Erbakan. In 1976 the various groups joined together in the Turkish Union in Europe, which changed its name in 1982 to the Islamic Union in Europe and in 1985 to the Organization of the National Vision in Europe (Avrupa Millî Görüş Teşkilatı, or AMGT). With its headquarters in Cologne, Germany, 25 to 30 centers and 145 mosques in different parts of Germany, 150 to 220 affiliated organizations, about 70,000 members and the Organization of Islamic Youth in Europe (Avrupa Islamci Gençlik Birliği), the AMGT is the largest nongovernmental organization of Muslims in Germany.

The AMGT also runs centers in Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Switzerland, and Austria. It cooperates with other Islamist organizations, such as the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood, the Afghan Party of God (Ḥizbullāh), the Filipino Moro National Liberation Front, and the Libyan Islamic Call Society. After the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 and the military takeover in Turkey in 1980, severe ideological and political conflicts erupted within the organization. In 1984, a group of radical fundamentalist and anti-secular Muslims around Cemalettin Kaplan left the AMGT and founded the Iran-oriented Federation of the Islamic Unions and Communities. In 1986 three members of AMGT were accused in the State Security Court in Ankara of attempting to establish a theocratic state in Turkey. They were also suspected of working as a connecting link between AMGT, the Kaplan group, and Iran.

The ideological orientation of AMGT is Islamist. It is based on the Qurʿān, the sunnah (traditions of the Prophet), and sharīʿah. The Qurʿān is held to be the only legitimate constitution. The political developments in Iran are considered an important step toward the liberation of Islam and a model for the re-Islamization of Turkish society. The AMGT advocates the bipartite division of the world in accordance with Islamic international law (dār al-Islām / dār al-ḥarb). Living in Western societies means living in societies alien and hostile to Islam. Integration into Western societies and adaptation to the Western way of life is strictly rejected and is regarded as treason to Islam. Consequently the AMGT is also opposed to the integration of Turkey into the European Union. Since the end of the 1980s, however, there have been indications of a new dialogue with trade unions, churches, and the media. But it is too early to tell if this portends a change in policy or if this is mainly a tactical move. Like other Muslim organizations, AMGT has applied for the legal status of “body of public law,” but no Muslim organization in Germany has yet been granted this status. See also ERBAKAN, NECMETTIN; and GERMANY.

Bibliography

  • Eligur, Banu. The Mobilization of Political Islam in Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  • Landau, Jacob. “The National Salvation Party in Turkey.”Asian and African Studies11, no. 1 (1976): 1–57. Overview of the early years of the party and the political background of the AMGT.
  • Modood, Tariq, Anna Triandafyllidou, and Ricard Zapata-Barrero. Multiculturalism, Muslims, and Citizenship: A European Approach. New York, 2006.
  • Yavuz, Hakan. “Political Islam and the Welfare (Refah) Party in Turkey.”Comparative Politics30, no. 1 (1997): 63–82.

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