Citation for Hypocrite

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"Hypocrite." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. May 17, 2022. <>.


"Hypocrite." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, (accessed May 17, 2022).


Arabic munafiq. A polemical term applied to Muslims who possess weak faith or who profess Islam while secretly working against it. In the Quran, the term applies to a specific group of people headed by Abd Allah ibn Ubaiy , whose lukewarm support of Muhammad at critical moments, such as at the Battle of Uhud and the Battle of the Trench, caused great strain for the early Muslim community. The Quran equates hypocrisy with unbelief (kufr) and condemns hypocrites to hellfire for their failure to fully support the Muslim cause financially, bodily, and morally.

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