Citation for Ghulam Ahmad, Mirza

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"Ghulam Ahmad, Mirza." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Jan 25, 2021. <>.


"Ghulam Ahmad, Mirza." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, (accessed Jan 25, 2021).

Ghulam Ahmad, Mirza

(d. 1908 )

Founder of Ahmadi movement in Punjab, India, in 1889 . Claimed to be the Mahdi of Muslims, the Messiah of Christians, and the avatar of Krishna for Hindus. Also claimed to have received revelation from God. Denied that Muhammad was the last prophet. Prolific writer. Devoted to the organization and expansion of his movement; debates with Sunni ulama, Christian missionaries, and Hindu revivalists; and the publication of periodicals that propagated the Ahmadi intepretation of Islam. Built an effective social organization with economic cooperatives and other establishments designed to benefit followers. The movement is labeled non-Muslim and fiercely opposed by Muslims, although the group considers itself Muslim.

See also Ahmadis

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