Citation for Fundamentalism

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"Fundamentalism." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Nov 20, 2019. <>.


"Fundamentalism." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, (accessed Nov 20, 2019).


Term used to refer to early-twentieth-century American Christian Protestant movement based on affirmation of faith that defines belief in an absolutist and literalist manner. Involves an effort to purify or reform adherents' beliefs and practices in accord with self-defined fundamentals of faith, and a self-conscious effort to avoid compromise, adaptation, or critical reinterpretation of basic texts and sources of belief. In the Islamic context, the term typically refers to revivalist movements. Modern Islamic fundamentalist movements reject copying of Western methods, affirming instead the comprehensive and effective nature of the Islamic message. Some scholars believe that Islamic fundamentalism is a distinctively modern phenomenon, while others argue that activist movements advocating a return to pristine fundamentals of faith are evident throughout Islamic history.

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