Citation for Umm al-Walad

Citation styles are based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Ed., and the MLA Style Manual, 2nd Ed..

MLA

"Umm al-Walad." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Nov 24, 2020. <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e2424>.

Chicago

"Umm al-Walad." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e2424 (accessed Nov 24, 2020).

Umm al-Walad

Mother of the son. Refers to a slave woman impregnated by her owner, thereby bearing a child. In the opinion of many classical jurists, such a slave woman cannot be sold. In sociohistorical practice, slave girls used their beauty and intelligence to attract the attention of powerful men and then used the birth of male children to place themselves in positions of power. In some cases they were raised to the rank of queen after giving birth to a son, especially under the Abbasids and Ottomans. Children, male or female, born of this union are legally free and enjoy all rights of legitimate parentage, including inheritance and use of the father's name.

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