Citation for Taqlid

Citation styles are based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Ed., and the MLA Style Manual, 2nd Ed..

MLA

"Taqlid." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Aug 25, 2019. <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e2339>.

Chicago

"Taqlid." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e2339 (accessed Aug 25, 2019).

Taqlid

Imitation. Conformity to legal precedent, traditional behavior, and doctrines. Often juxtaposed by reformers with ijtihad, independent reasoning based on revelation. Traditionally, legal precedent is considered binding in Islamic law, but taqlid has acquired a negative connotation among modern reformers, who use the term to refer to cultural and intellectual stagnation and unwillingness to experiment with new ideas. Reformist criticism has taken both fundamentalist and modernist directions.

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