Citation for Philosophy

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"Philosophy." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Apr 13, 2021. <>.


"Philosophy." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, (accessed Apr 13, 2021).


Arabic falsafah. Muslim scholars integrated certain elements of Greek philosophy into Islamic perspectives, creating new schools of thought. Al-Kindi (d. 873 ) founded the early Peripatetic school, combining Aristotelian and Neoplatonic elements and attempting to harmonize faith and reason. The father of formal logic and Islamic political philosophy, al-Farabi (d. 950 ), synthesized Plato 's political philosophy and Islam. Ibn Sina 's ( Avicenna , d. 1037 ) stress on the distinction between necessary and contingent existents became central to Islamic thought and deeply influenced Judeo-Christian philosophy and theology. Major medieval theologians such as al-Ghazali (d. 1111 ) composed treatises against philosophy, thus curtailing rationalism, although he was refuted by the renowned Aristotelian philosopher Ibn Rushd ( Averro√ęs , d. 1198 ). His influence in the West was greater than that in the Islamic world. Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406 ) established a philosophy of history. The twelfth through sixteenth centuries marked the ascendancy of philosophy in Persia, particularly hikmat al-ishraq (the wisdom of illumination), initiated by al-Suhrawardi (d. 1191 ) and culminating in the work of Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi ( Mulla Sadra , d. 1641 ). Philosophy continues to play an important role in Iranian intellectual life.

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