Citation for Pancasila

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"Pancasila." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. May 17, 2022. <>.


"Pancasila." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, (accessed May 17, 2022).


Indonesian. Five principles. Core ideology of the Indonesian government consisting of belief in God, Indonesian nationalism, humanitarianism or just and civilized humanity, democracy, and social justice. Formulated by Sukarno in 1945 . Intended to alleviate religious tensions and promote pluralism, since specific religious practice is the individual's choice. Some Muslim activists contest that Pancasila is responsible for the rising number of conversions to Christianity and does not give Islam a sufficiently prominent place in Indonesian national ideology.

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