Citation for Natural Science

Citation styles are based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Ed., and the MLA Style Manual, 2nd Ed..

MLA

"Natural Science." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. May 17, 2022. <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e1737>.

Chicago

"Natural Science." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e1737 (accessed May 17, 2022).

Natural Science

Arabic ilm al-tabiah. Physics, in contemporary usage. Ranked as the lowest of the intellectual sciences by the Hellenized philosopher al-Farabi (d. ca. 950 ), who says that its subject matter is terrestrial bodies—animals, plants, and minerals; Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406 ) subsumes all sensible objects, including heavenly bodies, in the scope of this science. Islamic scientists made numerous advances in several branches of physics. For example, al-Kindi (d. 873 ) mathematized physical notions.

© Oxford University Press 2007-2008. All Rights Reserved