Citation for Middle East, Islam in

Citation styles are based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Ed., and the MLA Style Manual, 2nd Ed..


"Middle East, Islam in." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. May 20, 2022. <>.


"Middle East, Islam in." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, (accessed May 20, 2022).

Middle East, Islam in

Islam varies widely across the Middle East in practice, legal and theological orientation, attitude toward women, and role in government and society. The Middle East includes Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Egypt, Palestine/Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Yemen, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Syria, and Lebanon. Islam has developed in four major periods in the Middle East: foundations ( 622 – 750 ), institutional formation ( 750 – 1050 ), classical period ( 1050 – 1800 ), and modern transformation ( 1800 –present). The Middle East is the birthplace of Islam and the location where its major tenets, law, and many of its major historical dynasties (Ummayad, Abbasid, Ottoman, and Safavid) developed. The Middle East is also the heartland of religious scholarship and tradition, attracting scholars from throughout the Muslim world. Concerns about the perceived corruption of Islam and society and the need for reinterpretation of legal sources resulted in a major Islamic revival in the Middle East (and elsewhere in the Muslim world, especially in India) in the eighteenth century. The nineteenth century brought European colonial powers and Western science and technology to the Middle East. The result was the development of Islamic modernism, a reinterpretation of classical Islam to meet the needs of the modern world. Independence from European colonial powers resulted in the establishment of secular-oriented governments, adoption of state industrialization plans, and massive urbanization. The Islamic revival began in 1967 with losses in the Arab-Israeli War and the failure of modernization and development plans. Modernist and secular programs lost favor, and political Islam or “Islamist” reformers gained popularity. They remain the dominant opposition to the surviving monarchies and military dictatorships. The most overtly religious states are Saudi Arabia and Iran, both of which claim to be Islamic states and implement Islamic law. Forms of states differ—Saudi Arabia is a Sunni monarchy, while Iran is a Shii republic that holds elections.

© Oxford University Press 2007-2008. All Rights Reserved