Citation for Kafir

Citation styles are based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Ed., and the MLA Style Manual, 2nd Ed..

MLA

"Kafir." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Aug 24, 2019. <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e1229>.

Chicago

"Kafir." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e1229 (accessed Aug 24, 2019).

Kafir

Unbeliever. First applied to Meccans who refused submission to Islam, the term implies an active rejection of divine revelation. All unbelievers are thought to face eternal damnation in the afterlife. Although there is disagreement about whether Jews and Christians are unbelievers, they have generally received tolerant treatment from Muslim governments. Islamic fundamentalists in the twentieth century applied the term to other Muslims who did not adhere to their strict interpretations of the Quran.

See also Kufr

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