Citation for Jizyah

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"Jizyah." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Jan 25, 2021. <>.


"Jizyah." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, (accessed Jan 25, 2021).


Compensation. Poll tax levied on non-Muslims as a form of tribute and in exchange for an exemption from military service, based on Quran 9:29 . Sometimes conceived as a graduated head tax in which the rich paid more than the poor and the penniless were exempt; other times, it was strictly applied. If a Muslim leader did not provide his subjects with adequate security, he was obliged to refund the tax; Salah al-Din ( Saladin ) returned the money to his Christian subjects when he was compelled to withdraw his army from Syria. There is no consensus about its applicability in the modern world.

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