Citation for Repentance

Citation styles are based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Ed., and the MLA Style Manual, 2nd Ed..

MLA

Abdel Haleem, M. A. S. , trans. "Repentance." In The Qurʾan. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Jul 22, 2019. <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/book/islam-9780192831934/islam-9780192831934-chapter-9>.

Chicago

Abdel Haleem, M. A. S. , trans. "Repentance." In The Qurʾan. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/book/islam-9780192831934/islam-9780192831934-chapter-9 (accessed Jul 22, 2019).

9. Repentance (1 – 22)

A Medinan sura whose title is taken from verse 104. The sura opens by giving notice of the severance of the treaty with the idolaters because they had broken it, but the bulk of the sura deals with preparations and recruitment for the expedition to Tabuk, which took place in the heat of the summer of AH 9 (631 CE). The hypocrites and those who stayed behind and failed to support the Prophet are all censured. This is the only sura not to begin with the formula ‘In the name of God, the Lord of Mercy, the Giver of Mercy’; there is an opinion that suras 8 and 9 are in fact just one sura.

1A release by God and His Messenger from the treaty you [believers] made with the idolaters [is announced]—2you [idolaters] may move freely about the land for four months, but you should bear in mind both that you will not escape God, and that God will disgrace those who defy [Him].a ‘Kafara bi (something)’ in Arabic can mean ‘disown (something)’ (al-Mu’jam al-Wasit), so kuffar here could also mean ‘those who disown [the treaty]’. 3On the Day of the Great Pilgrimage [there will be] a proclamation from God and His Messenger to all people: ‘God and His Messenger are released from [treaty] obligations to the idolaters. It will be better for you [idolaters] if you repent; know that you cannot escape God if you turn away.’ [Prophet], warn those who ignore [God] that they will have a painful punishment. 4As for those who have honoured the treaty you made with them and who have not supported anyone against you: fulfil your agreement with them to the end of their term. God loves those who are mindful of Him.

5When the [four] forbidden months are over, whereverb Inside or outside the Sanctuary in Mecca. See note d to 2: 191. you encounter the idolaters,c In this context, this definitely refers to the ones who broke the treaty. The article here is ahdiya (specific) referring to what has already been stated. kill them, seize them, besiege them, wait for them at every lookout post; but if they turn [to God], maintain the prayer, and pay the prescribed alms, let them go on their way, for God is most forgiving and merciful. 6If any one of the idolaters should seek your protection [Prophet], grant it to him so that he may hear the word of God, then take him to a place safe for him, for they are people with no knowledge [of it]. 7How could there be a treaty with God and His Messenger for such idolaters? But as for those with whom you made a treaty at the Sacred Mosque, so long as they remain true to you, be true to them; God loves those who are mindful of Him. 8[How,] when, if they were to get the upper hand over you, they would not respect any tie with you, of kinship or of treaty? They please you with their tongues, but their hearts are against you and most of them are lawbreakers. 9They have sold God's message for a trifling gain, and barred others from His path. How evil their actions are! 10Where believers are concerned, they respect no tie of kinship or treaty. They are the ones who are committing aggression. 11If they turn to God, keep up the prayer, and pay the prescribed alms, then they are your brothers in faith: We make the messages clear for people who are willing to learn. 12But if they break their oath after having made an agreement with you, if they revile your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelief—oaths mean nothing to them—so that they may stop. 13How could you not fight a people who have broken their oaths, who tried to drive the Messenger out, who attacked you first? Do you fear them? It is God you should fear if you are true believers. 14Fight them: God will punish them at your hands, He will disgrace them, He will help you to conquer them, He will heal the believers’ feelings 15and remove the rage from their hearts. God turns to whoever He will in His mercy; God is all knowing and wise. 16Do you think that you will be left untesteda See also 29: 2.without God identifying which of you will strive for His cause and take no supporters apart from God, His Messenger, and other believers? God is fully aware of all your actions.

17It is not right for the idolaters to tend God's places of worship while testifying to their own disbelief: the deeds of such people will come to nothing and they will abide in Hell. 18The only ones who should tend God's places of worship are those who believe in God and the Last Day, who keep up the prayer, who pay the prescribed alms, and who fear no one but God: such people may hope to be among the rightly guided. 19Do you consider giving water to pilgrims and tending the Sacred Mosque to be equal to the deeds of those who believe in God and the Last Day and who strive in God's path? They are not equal in God's eyes. God does not guide such benighted people. 20Those who believe, who migrated and strove hard in God's way with their possessions and their persons, are in God's eyes much higher in rank; it is they who will triumph; 21and their Lord gives them the good news of His mercy and pleasure, Gardens where they will have lasting bliss 22and where they will remain for ever: truly, there is a tremendous reward with God.

Notes:

a ‘Kafara bi (something)’ in Arabic can mean ‘disown (something)’ (al-Mu’jam al-Wasit), so kuffar here could also mean ‘those who disown [the treaty]’.

b Inside or outside the Sanctuary in Mecca. See note d to 2: 191.

c In this context, this definitely refers to the ones who broke the treaty. The article here is ahdiya (specific) referring to what has already been stated.

a See also 29: 2.

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