We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more Ibn Bādīs, ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd - Oxford Islamic Studies Online
Select Translation What is This? Selections include: The Koran Interpreted, a translation by A.J. Arberry, first published 1955; The Qur'an, translated by M.A.S. Abdel Haleem, published 2004; or side-by-side comparison view
Chapter: verse lookup What is This? Select one or both translations, then enter a chapter and verse number in the boxes, and click "Go."
:
  • Previous Result
  • Results
  • Highlight On / Off
  • Look It Up What is This? Highlight any word or phrase, then click the button to begin a new search.
  • Next Result

Ibn Bādīs, ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

By:
Emad Eldin Shahin
Source:
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World What is This? Provides comprehensive scholarly coverage of the full geographical and historical extent of Islam

Ibn Bādīs, ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Ibn Bādīs (1889–1940), an Islamic reformer, national leader, and head of the Association of Algerian ʿUlamāʿ, was born in Constantine, Algeria, to a prominent Berber family renowned for its scholarship, wealth, and influence. Ibn Bādīs received an Islamic education and in 1908 attended the famous Zaytūnah Mosque in Tunis. There, he was educated by scholars who had been influenced by the teachings of Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī (d. 1897) and Muḥammad ʿAbduh (d. 1905) and introduced Ibn Bādīs to the reformist ideas of the Salafīyah movement. After obtaining the degree of ʿālim (scholar of religion), Ibn Bādīs returned in 1913 to Algeria and, until his death in 1940, devoted his entire career to teaching, reforming Islam, and defining the Arab and Islamic basis of Algerian nationalism.

The French colonial administration had closed down many centers of Arab and Islamic education, appropriated the financial institutions that backed them, restricted the teaching of Arabic and the Qurʿān, and spread French schooling and culture. It also encouraged missionary activities and supported the mystical Ṣūfī orders, which disseminated acquiescent attitudes among the Algerians. To quell the disorienting effects of French policies and the advocates of assimilation (évolués), Ibn Bādīs initiated a reform movement that sought to assert the national identity of Algeria, defend the cultural integrity of its people, and prepare them for eventual independence from France. In 1925, he founded a weekly paper, Al-Muntaqid (The Critic), in which he disseminated Salafī ideas and attacked the “un-Islamic” practices of the Ṣūfī orders. Al-muntaqid was banned after eighteen issues, and Ibn Bādīs replaced it with Al-Shihāb (The Meteor), in which he maintained a more moderate tone.

In 1931, Ibn Bādīs and other religious scholars formed the Association of Algerian ʿUlamāʿ, which he headed and which promoted the Arab and Islamic roots of the Algerian nation, the reform and revival of Islam, and criticism of the Ṣūfī orders and the assimilationists. The Association demanded religious freedom, restoration of the ḥubūs (religious endowment, waqf) properties, and recognition of Arabic as the national language. It opened hundreds of free schools and mosques to teach Arabic, Islam, and modern subjects, published its own papers to spread religious, cultural, and social reform, campaigned against the marabouts ’ (local venerated men) corrupt practices, and sent delegations to France and opened branches to involve Algerian residents there. In 1938, the Association issued a formal fatwā (legal opinion), which declared naturalized Algerians to be non-Muslims. Its activities disturbed the French administration, which tried to restrict the conduct of its members.

Ibn Bādīs perceived his mission as “not to produce books, but educated people.” His thought is discernible in the numerous articles that he wrote and in his interpretation of the Qurʿān. He shared many viewpoints of the Salafīyah movement, blaming the deterioration of the Muslims on internal weakness, disunity, despotism, and the spread of non-Islamic practices.

Ibn Bādīs stressed education to purify Islam from popular accretions and improve the condition of the individual as a step toward reviving the entire society. He offered a modernist interpretation of the Qurʿān and emphasized reasoning and free will. His major contribution lies in linking reform and education with the promotion of an Algerian nationalism. He identified Islam, Arabism, and nationalism as the three components of the Algerian national character.

Ibn Bādīs and the Algerian ʿUlamāʿ laid the foundations for the national identity of the Algerian people. Throughout the Algerian war against France (1954–1962), the Association aligned with the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), and was later represented in the provisional government of the Algerian Republic after independence.

See also ALGERIA and SALAFīYAH.

Bibliography

  • Balāsī, Nabīl Aḥmad. Al-ittijāh al-ʿArabī wa-al-Islāmī wa-dawruhu fī taḥrīr al-Jazāʿir (The Arab and Islamic Trend and Its Role in Liberating Algeria). Cairo, 1990. Detailed study of the Arab and Islamic trend and its impact within the Algerian nationalist movement. Find it in your Library
  • Jūrashī, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-. Tajribah fī al-iṣlāḥ: Ibn Bādīs (A Case in Reform: Ibn Bādīs). Tunis, 1978. Overview of the role of Ibn Bādīs and the Association of Algerian ʿUlamāʿ in establishing a movement for reform and social change. Find it in your Library
  • Kurzman, Charles. Modernist Islam, 1840–1940: A Sourcebook. Oxford and New York, 2002. Find it in your Library
  • Qāsim, Maḥmūd. Al-Imām ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Ibn Bādīs, al-zaʿīm al-rūḥī li-ḥarb al-taḥrīr al-Jazāʿirīyah (ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Ibn Bādīs: The Spiritual Leader of the Algerian Liberation War). 2d ed.Cairo, 1979. Early and excellent study of Ibn Bādīs 's life, reform ideas, and thought. Find it in your Library
  • Rābiḥ, Turkī. Al-Shaykh ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Ibn Bādīs: Rāʿid al-iṣlāḥ wa-al-tarbīyah fī al-Jazāʿir (ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Ibn Bādīs: The Pioneer of Reform and Education in Algeria). 3d ed.Algiers, 1981. Comprehensive study of an important period in Algeria 's modern history (1900–1940), with a special focus on Ibn Bādīs, social, cultural, economic, and political factors influencing his thought, and his contributions in providing the Arab and Islamic seeds for the Algerian nationalist movement. Find it in your Library
  • ʿUthmān, Fatḥī. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Ibn Bādīs: Rāʿid al-ḥarakah al-Islāmīyah fī al-Jazāʿir al-muʿāṣirah (ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Ibn Bādīs: The Pioneer of the Islamic Movement in Contemporary Algeria). Kuwait, 1987. Original comparison of Ibn Bādīs 's thought and movement with that of Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī, Muḥammad ʿAbduh, and Ḥasan al-Bannā’. Find it in your Library
  • Previous Result
  • Results
  • Highlight On / Off
  • Look It Up What is This? Highlight any word or phrase, then click the button to begin a new search.
  • Next Result
Oxford University Press

© 2020. All Rights Reserved. Cookie Policy | Privacy Policy | Legal Notice