We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more Ḥāʿirī Yazdī, ʿAbd al-Karīm - Oxford Islamic Studies Online
Select Translation What is This? Selections include: The Koran Interpreted, a translation by A.J. Arberry, first published 1955; The Qur'an, translated by M.A.S. Abdel Haleem, published 2004; or side-by-side comparison view
Chapter: verse lookup What is This? Select one or both translations, then enter a chapter and verse number in the boxes, and click "Go."
:
  • Previous Result
  • Results
  • Highlight On / Off
  • Look It Up What is This? Highlight any word or phrase, then click the button to begin a new search.
  • Next Result

Ḥāʿirī Yazdī, ʿAbd al-Karīm

By:
Willem Floor
Source:
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World What is This? Provides comprehensive scholarly coverage of the full geographical and historical extent of Islam

Ḥāʿirī Yazdī, ʿAbd al-Karīm

ʿAbd al-Karīm Ḥāʿirī Yazdī (1859–1936), was the most prominent teacher among the ʿulamāʿ (community of religious scholars) in the city of Qom from 1921 to 1936. He received religious training in Iraq from Mīrzā Ḥasan Shīrāzī (d. 1896), Muḥammad al-Fishārakī al-Iṣfahānī (d. 1899), and Mullā Muḥammad Kāẓim Khurāsānī (d. 1911). He persisted throughout his life in maintaining a position of strict noninvolvement in political matters. Between 1900 and 1913 he moved between the western Iranian town of Arak, where he had established a center of learning, and Iraq to avoid being involved in political matters, such as the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905–1909 and the anti-British movement in Iraq. From Karbala, Iraq, he moved to Arak in 1913, and then to Qom in 1920. There, he founded a seminary called the Hawẓah-yi ʿIlmʿiyah, which became the premier institution of religious education in Iran.

Ḥāʿirī maintained his policy of strict nonintervention in political affairs throughout his stay in Qom and until the end of his life in 1936. This is clear from his silence during the British expulsion of Shīʿī leaders from Iraq in 1923 and the insurrection by some Isfahan clergy in Iran in 1924 (over opium production) and in the case of the exiling of Ayatollah Muḥammad Taqī Bāfqī (for his criticism of the behavior of ladies of the royal court in the Qom shrine) in 1928. This position of political noninterference over the years was a cause of wonderment to many, and was rooted in his natural disposition. During his stay in Qom, he became involved with political issues only twice. Ḥāʿirī, together with Muḥammad Ḥusayn Nāʿīnī (d. 1936) and Abū al-Ḥasan Iṣfahānī (d. 1945) convinced Reza Khan in 1924 not to make Iran a republic. In 1932 Ḥāʿirī sent a strong message to Reza Shah stating that certain new policies (the Dress Law of 1928 and the curtailment of the ʿulamā ʿ's position) were contrary to Shīʿī law and he was thus duty-bound to inform the shah that this was unacceptable.

Ḥāʿirī did not press these issues, but exhorted all Iranians to follow their progressive monarch. He publicly stated, “It is due to this security [brought by Reza Shah] that I can fulfill my duties to Islam and teach in this city” (Faghfoory, p. 281). Ḥāʿirīʾs most famous student, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (d. 1989), disagreed with his teacher on the role of the marjaʿ al-taqlīd, the most distinguished rank among the religious leaders. Ḥāʿirī argued that a Shīʿī could follow more than one marjaʿ al-taqlīd on different aspects of Islamic law, a position supported by Murtaz¨ā Muṭahharī (d. 1979), one of Khomeini's most famous students, who argued that Islamic jurisprudence had grown too complex to be mastered by one individual in all its aspects (Muṭahharī, vol. 1, p. 218).

See also CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION; NāʿīNī, MUḥAMMAD ḤUSAYN; PAHLAVI, REZA SHAH; and QOM.

Bibliography

  • Āghā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, Muḥammad Muḥsin. Tabaqāt Aʿlām al-Shīʿah (The Shīʿī Clergy). 3 vols.Najaf, Iraq, 1954–1962. Standard source for the biographies of modern Shīʿī clergy.
  • Faghfoory, Mohammad H.“Modernization and Professionalism of the ʿUlamāʿ in Iran, 1925–1941.”Journal of Iranian Studies26.3–4 (Summer–Fall 1993) pp. 277–312. Discusses trends in the religious institution during the rule of Reza Shah.
  • Fischer, Michael M. J.Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution. Cambridge, Mass., 1980. Study of cultural idioms, religious discourse, and the Iranian clergy, particularly in Qom, in the Pahlavi period (pp. 85, 164).
  • Hāʿirī, ʿAbd al-Hādī. Shiism and Constitutionalism. Leiden, Netherlands, 1977. Investigates the role of the clergy in the early twentieth century, with a focus on the Constitutional Revolution and the early Reza Shah period.
  • Muṭahharī, Murtaz¨ā. “Asl-i Ijtihād dar Islām” (The Basis of Ijtihād in Islam). In Guftār-i Māh. 3 vols.Tehran, 1959–1961. Argues that fiqh has become too complex to be mastered by any one religious leader.
  • Raẓī Zangīpūrī, Muḥammad. Āsār-i Ḥujjah va Tārīkh va Dāʿirah-yi Maʿārif-i Ḥawẓah-yi ʿIlmīyah-yi Qumm (The Works of Proof and the History and Cycle of Learning of the Qom Seminary). Qom, Iran, 1959. History of Qom's seminary, with a focus on personalities.
  • Previous Result
  • Results
  • Highlight On / Off
  • Look It Up What is This? Highlight any word or phrase, then click the button to begin a new search.
  • Next Result
Oxford University Press

© 2022. All Rights Reserved. Cookie Policy | Privacy Policy | Legal Notice