Muslim feminists work as independent agents to redefine their own lives as women, counter patriarchal hegemony, and strive for more egalitarian arrangements in families, communities, and nations in accordance with their views on the Quran's egalitarianism. The articulation of awareness of the unequal construction of gender and of the domination of males over females began in the late nineteenth century in the Muslim world. Feminists insist on equality of men and women as citizens in the public sphere and accept the complementarity of roles in the family sphere. Modes of expression include creative and scholarly writings, everyday activism, and organized movement activism. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the major issues addressed were domestic seclusion and veiling, the need for female education, and elimination of women's oppression. In the second half of the twentieth century, major issues were gender roles and relations in family and society, sexual abuse and exploitation, misogyny, patriarchy, and women's gender and class oppression linked with imperialist oppression. At the end of the century, major trends were the construction of modern women citizens, reform of Muslim family law, respect for women's bodies, access to education as well as health care and family planning, confrontation of issues related to women's dress and mobility, and official recognition of the changing role of women in the public sphere and the workplace.