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Select Translation What is This? Selections include: The Koran Interpreted, a translation by A.J. Arberry, first published 1955; The Qur'an, translated by M.A.S. Abdel Haleem, published 2004; or side-by-side comparison view
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Science

Arabic ilm pl. ulum. Refers to all systematic knowledge, both religious and secular. Between the ninth and thirteenth centuries, Islamic civilization made major original contributions to the development of premodern science and transmitted Greek learning to Europe through extensive translations. The introduction of post-Renaissance science, technology, and thought into Islamic societies was pioneered by modernizing rulers and academic exchanges from the eighteenth through the twentieth centuries. The introduction of modern science has led many to recognize the need to synthesize traditional Islamic education with a modern curriculum. Many Muslim countries have developed major scientific research institutes and sponsored programs designed to Islamize science and knowledge. Islam recognizes no conflict between revelation and reason, believing that they are compatible.

See also Aesthetics; Alchemy; Astrology; Astronomy; Cosmology; Ethics; Geomancy; Geometry; History; Ilm al-Huruf; Ilm al-Rijal; Lexicology; Mathematics; Medicine: Traditional Practice; Natural Science

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