A disputed territory between India and Pakistan. In 1941 , 77 percent of the population was Muslim. Three major political forces dominated: the National Conference, which wanted to join India; the Muslim Conference, which wanted to join an independent state for Muslims; and the Dogra dynasty, which wanted to remain independent. In 1947 Britain partitioned the subcontinent into Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. Kashmir remained autonomous under the leadership of a Hindu maharaja. Muslim tribespeople invaded from Pakistan, and the maharaja acceded to India in 1948 ; Pakistani and Indian troops fought in Kashmir beginning in 1947 . India appealed to the United Nations, which called for a cease-fire, withdrawal of Pakistani troops, and a plebiscite on the future of Kashmir. The plebiscite has never been held. Another war between India and Pakistan in Kashmir ( 1965 ) failed to resolve the dispute. India continues to hold the greater part of Kashmir; roughly one-third is a semiautonomous region of Pakistan known as Azad (free) Kashmir.