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*J ʿ L

JAʿALA — to make; to place, to set, to establish; to assign, to appoint, to give

  1. a) perf. act.
  2. 4:5(4) do not give to fools their property that God has assigned to you to manage
  3. 5:97(98) God has appointed the Kaaba
  4. 5:103(102) God has not appointed cattle dedicated to idols
  5. 6:136(137) they appoint to God, of the tillage and cattle
  6. 16:72(74) God has appointed for you of yourselves wives
  7. 16:80(82) it is God who has appointed a place of rest
  8. 16:81(83) it is God who has appointed for you coverings
  9. 16:91(93) and you have made God your surety
  10. 28:71(71) what think you? If God should make the night unceasing
  11. 28:72(72) what think you? If God should make the day unceasing
  12. 33:4(4) God has not assigned to any man two hearts within
  13. 40:61(63) it is God who made for you the night
  14. 40:64(66) it is God who made for you the earth
  15. 40:79(79) it is God who appointed for you the cattle
  16. 65:3(3) God has appointed a measure for everything
  17. 71:19(18) God has laid the earth for you as a carpet
  1. b) impf. act.
  2. 2:224(224) do not make God a hindrance, through your oaths
  3. 3:156(150) that God may make that an anguish in their hearts
  4. 4:19(23) you may be averse to a thing, and God set in it much good
  5. 4:144(143) do you desire to give God over you a clear authority?
  6. 6:125(125) so God lays abomination upon those who believe not
  7. 16:57(59) and they assign to God daughters
  8. 16:62(64) they assign to God that they themselves dislike
  9. 24:40(40) to whomsoever God assigns no light, no light has he
  10. 60:7(7) it may be God will yet establish between you and… them… love
  11. 65:7(7) God will assuredly appoint, after difficulty, easiness
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6. Livestock (136 – 158)

136They apportion to God a share of the produce and the livestock He created, saying, ‘This is for God’—so they claim!—‘and this is for our idols.’ Their idols’ share does not reach God, but God's share does reach their idols: how badly they judge! 137In the same way, their idols have induced many of the pagans to kill their own children,a Razi explains that either the jinn or servants of the idols appointed by the pagans suggested this infanticide. bringing them ruin and confusion in their faith: if God had willed otherwise they would not have done this, so [Prophet] leave them to their own devices. 138They also say, ‘These cattle and crops are reserved, and only those we allow may eat them’—so they claim! There are some animals they exempt from labour and some over which they do not pronounce God's name [during slaughter], falsely attributing these [regulations] to Him: He will repay them for the falsehoods they invent. 139They also say, ‘The contents of these animals’ wombs will be reserved solely for our men and forbidden to our women, though if the offspring is stillborn they may have a share of it.’ He will punish them for what they attribute to Him: He is all wise, all aware. 140Lost indeed are those who kill their own children out of folly, with no basis in knowledge,a i.e. scriptural evidence, cf. verses 143, 144, and 148. forbidding what God has provided for them, fabricating lies against Him: they have gone far astray and have heeded no guidance.

141It is He who produces both trellised and untrellised gardens, date palms, crops of diverse flavours, the olive, the pomegranate, alike yet different. So when they bear fruit, eat some of it, paying what is due on the day of harvest, but do not be wasteful: God does not like wasteful people. 142[He gave you] livestock, as beasts of burden and as food. So eat what God has provided for you and do not follow in Satan's footsteps: he is your sworn enemy. 143[God gave you] eight animals, in [four] pairs: a pair of sheep and a pair of goats—ask them [Prophet], ‘Has He forbidden the two males, the two females, or the young in the wombs of the two females? Tell me based on knowledge if you are telling the truth.’ 144And a pair of camels and a pair of cattle—ask them [Prophet], ‘Has He forbidden the two males, the two females, or the young in the wombs of the two females? Were you present when God gave you these commands?’ So who is more wicked than he who fabricates lies against God with no basis in knowledge in order to lead people astray? God does not guide the evildoers.

145[Prophet], say, ‘In all that has been revealed to me, I find nothing forbidden for people to eat, except for carrion, flowing blood, pig's meat—it is loathsome—or a sinful offering over which any name other than God's has been invoked.’ But if someone is forced by hunger, rather than desire or excess, then God is most forgiving and most merciful. 146We forbade for the Jews every animal with claws, and the fat of cattle and sheep, except what is on their backs and in their intestines, or that which sticks to their bones. This is how We penalized them for their disobedience: We are true to Our word. 147If they [the disbelievers] accuse you [Prophet] of lying, say, ‘Your Lord has all-encompassing mercy, but His punishment cannot be diverted from the evildoers.’ 148The idolaters will say, ‘If God had willed, we would not have ascribed partners to Him—nor would our fathers—or have declared anything forbidden.’ In the same way, those before them continually denied [the truth] until they tasted Our punishment. Say, ‘Have you any knowledge that you can show us? You follow only supposition and tell only lies.’ 149Say, ‘The conclusive argument belongs to God alone. Had He so willed He would have guided you all.’ 150Say, ‘Bring your witnesses to testify that God has forbidden all this.’ If they do testify, do not bear witness with them. Do not follow the whims of those who have denied Our revelation, who do not believe in the Hereafter, and who set up equals with their Lord.

151Say, ‘Come! I will tell you what your Lord has really forbidden you. Do not ascribe anything as a partner to Him; be good to your parents; do not kill your children in fear of poverty’—We will provide for you and for them—'stay well away from committing obscenities, whether openly or in secret; do not take the life God has made sacred, except by right. This is what He commands you to do: perhaps you will use your reason. 152Stay well away from the property of orphans, except with the best [intentions], until they come of age; give full measure and weight, according to justice’—We do not burden any soul with more than it can bear—’when you speak, be just, even if it concerns a relative; keep any promises you make in God's name. This is what He commands you to do, so that you may take heed’—153this is My path, leading straight, so follow it, and do not follow other ways: they will lead you away from it—’This is what He commands you to do, so that you may refrain from wrongdoing.’

154Once again,a This reiterates the statement in verses 91–3 in response to their denial that God has ever sent down any revelation. We gave Moses the Scripture, perfecting [Our favour] for those who do good, explaining everything clearly, as guidance and mercy, so that they might believe in the meeting with their Lord. 155This, too, is a blessed Scripture which We have sent down—follow it and be conscious of your Lord, so that you may receive mercy—156lest you say, ‘Scriptures were only sent down to two communities before us: we were not aware of what they studied,’ 157or ‘If only the Scripture had been sent down to us, we would have been better guided than them.’ Now clear evidence, guidance, and mercy have come to you from your Lord. Who could be more wrong than someone who rejects God's revelations and turns away from them? We shall repay those who turn away with a painful punishment. 158Are they waiting for the very angels to come to them, or your Lord Himself, or maybe some of His signs? But on the Day some of your Lord's signsa Signs of the Day of Judgement. come, no soul will profit from faith if it had none before, or has not already earned some good through its faith. Say, ‘Wait if you wish: we too are waiting.’

Notes:

a Razi explains that either the jinn or servants of the idols appointed by the pagans suggested this infanticide.

a i.e. scriptural evidence, cf. verses 143, 144, and 148.

a This reiterates the statement in verses 91–3 in response to their denial that God has ever sent down any revelation.

a Signs of the Day of Judgement.

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