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*J ʿ L

JAʿALA — to make; to place, to set, to establish; to assign, to appoint, to give

  1. a) perf. act.
  2. 4:5(4) do not give to fools their property that God has assigned to you to manage
  3. 5:97(98) God has appointed the Kaaba
  4. 5:103(102) God has not appointed cattle dedicated to idols
  5. 6:136(137) they appoint to God, of the tillage and cattle
  6. 16:72(74) God has appointed for you of yourselves wives
  7. 16:80(82) it is God who has appointed a place of rest
  8. 16:81(83) it is God who has appointed for you coverings
  9. 16:91(93) and you have made God your surety
  10. 28:71(71) what think you? If God should make the night unceasing
  11. 28:72(72) what think you? If God should make the day unceasing
  12. 33:4(4) God has not assigned to any man two hearts within
  13. 40:61(63) it is God who made for you the night
  14. 40:64(66) it is God who made for you the earth
  15. 40:79(79) it is God who appointed for you the cattle
  16. 65:3(3) God has appointed a measure for everything
  17. 71:19(18) God has laid the earth for you as a carpet
  1. b) impf. act.
  2. 2:224(224) do not make God a hindrance, through your oaths
  3. 3:156(150) that God may make that an anguish in their hearts
  4. 4:19(23) you may be averse to a thing, and God set in it much good
  5. 4:144(143) do you desire to give God over you a clear authority?
  6. 6:125(125) so God lays abomination upon those who believe not
  7. 16:57(59) and they assign to God daughters
  8. 16:62(64) they assign to God that they themselves dislike
  9. 24:40(40) to whomsoever God assigns no light, no light has he
  10. 60:7(7) it may be God will yet establish between you and… them… love
  11. 65:7(7) God will assuredly appoint, after difficulty, easiness
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5. The Feast (97 – 120)

97God has made the Ka‘ba—the Sacred House—a means of support for people,b The Ka‘ba is the centre of the pilgrimage, bringing in people from all over the world, where Muslims are allowed to trade—the Sacred Months ensured their safety. The offerings provide a means of livelihood to the poor and needy, and the custom of garlanding an animal gives it special protection. In addition to all these material benefits, there are the spiritual benefits of worshipping God. This is an example of bringing people together in peace (Razi). and the Sacred Months, the animals for sacrifice and their garlands: all this. Know that God has knowledge of all that is in the heavens and earth and that He is fully aware of all things. 98Know too that God is severe in punishment yet most forgiving and merciful.c This is a warning for those who violate these rites and refers back to verse 2 of this sura. 99The Messenger's duty is only to deliver the message: God knows what you reveal and what you conceal.

100Say [Prophet], ‘Bad cannot be likened to good, though you may be dazzled by how abundant the bad is. Be mindful of God, people of understanding, so that you may prosper.’ 101You who believe, do not ask about matters which, if made known to you, might make things difficult for you—if you ask about them while the Qurʾan is being revealed, they will be made known to you—for God has kept silent about them: God is most forgiving and forbearing. 102Before you, some people asked about things, then ignored [the answers]. 103God did not institute the dedication of such things as bahira, sa'iba, wasila, or hama Different classes of animals liberated from work or use as food, in honour of idols, and venerated by the pagan Arabs. to idols; but the disbelievers invent lies about God. Most of them do not use reason: 104when it is said to them, ‘Come to what God has sent down, and to the Messenger,’ they say, ‘What we inherited from our forefathers is good enough for us,’ even though their forefathers knew nothing and were not guided. 105You who believe, you are responsible for your own souls; if anyone else goes astray it will not harm you so long as you follow the guidance; you will all return to God, and He will make you realize what you have done.

106You who believe, when death approaches any of you, let two just men from among you act as witnesses to the making of a bequest, or two men from another people if you are journeying in the land when death approaches. Keep the two witnesses back after prayer, if you have any doubts, and make them both swear by God, ‘We will not sell our testimony for any price, even if a close relative is involved. We will not hide God's testimony, for then we should be doing wrong.’ 107If it is discovered that these two are guilty [of perjury], two of those whose rights have been usurped have a better right to bear witness in their place. Let them swear by God, ‘Our testimony is truer than theirs. We have said nothing but the truth, for that would make us wrongdoers’: 108that will make it more likely they will give true and proper testimony, or fear that their oaths might be refuted by others afterwards. Be mindful of God and listen; God does not guide those who break His laws.

109On the Day when God assembles all the messengersb As Razi rightly stated, it is the habit of the Qurʾan, having talked at length on legislation, to follow it with reminders of God's power, stories of earlier prophets, or what happens on the Day of Judgement, in order to motivate people to adhere to the legislation. In this sura, having earlier mentioned the claims of Christians, it seeks further to refute them by showing that Jesus will disown their claims on the Day of Judgement. and asks, ‘What response did you receive?’ they will say, ‘We do not have that knowledge: You alone know things that cannot be seen.’ 110Then God will say, ‘Jesus, son of Mary! Remember My favour to you and to your mother: how I strengthened you with the holy spirit, so that you spoke to people in your infancy and as a grown man; how I taught you the Scripture and wisdom, the Torah and the Gospel; how, by My leave, you fashioned the shape of a bird out of clay, breathed into it, and it became, by My leave, a bird; how, by My leave, you healed the blind person and the leper; how, by My leave, you brought the dead back to life; how I restrained the Children of Israel from [harming] you when you brought them clear signs, and those of them who disbelieved said, “This is clearly nothing but sorcery”; 111and how I inspired the disciples to believe in Me and My messengers—they said, “We believe and bear witness that we devote ourselves [to God].” ‘a Cf. 2: 131–3.

112When the disciples said, ‘Jesus, son of Mary, can your Lord send down a feast to us from heaven?’ he said, ‘Beware of God if you are true believers.’ 113They said, ‘We wish to eat from it; to have our hearts reassured; to know that you have told us the truth; and to be witnesses of it.’ 114Jesus, son of Mary, said, ‘Lord, send down to us a feast from heaven so that we can have a festival—the first and last of us—and a sign from You. Provide for us: You are the best provider.’ 115God said, ‘I will send it down to you, but anyone who disbelieves after this will be punished with a punishment that I will not inflict on anyone else in the world.’

116When God says, ‘Jesus, son of Mary, did you say to people, “Take me and my mother as two gods alongside God”?’ he will say, ‘May You be exalted! I would never say what I had no right to say— if I had said such a thing You would have known it: You know all that is within me, though I do not know what is within You, You alone have full knowledge of things unseen—117I told them only what You commanded me to: “Worship God, my Lord and your Lord.” I was a witness over them during my time among them. Ever since You took my soul, You alone have been the watcher over them: You are witness to all things 118and if You punish them, they are Your servants; if You forgive them, You are the Almighty, the Wise.’ 119God will say, ‘This is a Day when the truthful will benefit from their truthfulness. They will have Gardens graced with flowing streams, there to remain for ever. God is pleased with them and they with Him: that is the supreme triumph.’ 120Control of the heavens and earth and everything in them belongs to God: He has power over all things.

Notes:

b The Ka‘ba is the centre of the pilgrimage, bringing in people from all over the world, where Muslims are allowed to trade—the Sacred Months ensured their safety. The offerings provide a means of livelihood to the poor and needy, and the custom of garlanding an animal gives it special protection. In addition to all these material benefits, there are the spiritual benefits of worshipping God. This is an example of bringing people together in peace (Razi).

c This is a warning for those who violate these rites and refers back to verse 2 of this sura.

a Different classes of animals liberated from work or use as food, in honour of idols, and venerated by the pagan Arabs.

b As Razi rightly stated, it is the habit of the Qurʾan, having talked at length on legislation, to follow it with reminders of God's power, stories of earlier prophets, or what happens on the Day of Judgement, in order to motivate people to adhere to the legislation. In this sura, having earlier mentioned the claims of Christians, it seeks further to refute them by showing that Jesus will disown their claims on the Day of Judgement.

a Cf. 2: 131–3.

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