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*J ʿ L

JAʿALA — to make; to place, to set, to establish; to assign, to appoint, to give

  1. a) perf. act.
  2. 4:5(4) do not give to fools their property that God has assigned to you to manage
  3. 5:97(98) God has appointed the Kaaba
  4. 5:103(102) God has not appointed cattle dedicated to idols
  5. 6:136(137) they appoint to God, of the tillage and cattle
  6. 16:72(74) God has appointed for you of yourselves wives
  7. 16:80(82) it is God who has appointed a place of rest
  8. 16:81(83) it is God who has appointed for you coverings
  9. 16:91(93) and you have made God your surety
  10. 28:71(71) what think you? If God should make the night unceasing
  11. 28:72(72) what think you? If God should make the day unceasing
  12. 33:4(4) God has not assigned to any man two hearts within
  13. 40:61(63) it is God who made for you the night
  14. 40:64(66) it is God who made for you the earth
  15. 40:79(79) it is God who appointed for you the cattle
  16. 65:3(3) God has appointed a measure for everything
  17. 71:19(18) God has laid the earth for you as a carpet
  1. b) impf. act.
  2. 2:224(224) do not make God a hindrance, through your oaths
  3. 3:156(150) that God may make that an anguish in their hearts
  4. 4:19(23) you may be averse to a thing, and God set in it much good
  5. 4:144(143) do you desire to give God over you a clear authority?
  6. 6:125(125) so God lays abomination upon those who believe not
  7. 16:57(59) and they assign to God daughters
  8. 16:62(64) they assign to God that they themselves dislike
  9. 24:40(40) to whomsoever God assigns no light, no light has he
  10. 60:7(7) it may be God will yet establish between you and… them… love
  11. 65:7(7) God will assuredly appoint, after difficulty, easiness
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4. Women (19 – 42)

19You who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will,b In pre-Islamic Arabia, if a man died leaving a widow, her stepson or another man of his family could inherit her. nor should you treat your wives harshly, hoping to take back some of the bride-gift you gave them, unless they are guilty of something clearly outrageous. Live with them in accordance with what is fair and kind: if you dislike them, it may well be that you dislike something in which God has put much good. 20If you wish to replace one wife with another, do not take any of her bride-gift back, even if you have given her a great amount of gold. 21How could you take it when this is unjust and a blatant sin? How could you take it when you have lain with each other and they have taken a solemn pledge from you?

22Do not marry women that your fathers married—with the exception of what is past—this is indeed a shameful thing to do, loathsome and leading to evil. 23You are forbidden to take as wives your mothers, daughters, sisters, paternal and maternal aunts, the daughters of brothers and daughters of sisters, your milk-mothers and milk-sisters,c Islam regards women who breastfeed other people's infants as their ‘milk-mothers’, not merely ‘wet nurses’. your wives' mothers, the stepdaughters in your care—those born of women with whom you have consummated marriage, if you have not consummated the marriage, then you will not be blamed—wives of your begotten sons, two sisters simultaneously—with the exception of what is past: God is most forgiving and merciful—24women already married, other than your slaves.a Slave women were often unclaimed war captives, who would not be in a position to dissolve any previous marriage. An owner was not permitted to touch a slave woman whose husband was with her (Abu Hanifa, in Razi). God has ordained all this for you. Other women are lawful to you, so long as you seek them in marriage, with gifts from your property, looking for wedlock rather than fornication. If you wish to enjoy women through marriage, give them their bride-gift—this is obligatory—though if you should choose mutually, after fulfilling this obligation, to do otherwise [with the bride-gift], you will not be blamed: God is all knowing and all wise.

25If any of you does not have the means to marry a believing free woman, then marry a believing slave—God knows best [the depth of] your faith: you are [all] part of the same familyb Literally ‘you are from one another’. —so marry them with their people's consent and their proper bride-gifts. [Make them] married women, not adulteresses or lovers. If they commit adultery when they are married, their punishment will be half that of free women. This is for those of you who fear that you will sin; it is better for you to practise self-restraint. God is most forgiving and merciful, 26He wishes to make His laws clear to you and guide you to the righteous ways of those who went before you. He wishes to turn towards you in mercy—He is all knowing, all wise—27He wishes to turn towards you, but those who follow their lusts want you to go far astray. 28God wishes to lighten your burden; man was created weak.

29You who believe, do not wrongfully consume each other's wealth but trade by mutual consent. Do not kill each other, for God is merciful to you. 30If any of you does these things, out of hostility and injustice, We shall make him suffer Fire: that is easy for God. 31But if you avoid the great sins you have been forbidden, We shall wipe out your minor misdeeds and let you in through the entrance of honour.32Do not covet what God has given to some of you more than others—men have the portion they have earned;c The preposition min here is taken to have an explanatory rather than a partitive function, which would render the translation ‘some of what they have earned’. and women the portion they have earned—you should rather ask God for some of His bounty: He has full knowledge of everything. 33We have appointed heirs for everything that parents and close relatives leave behind, including those to whom you have pledged your hands [in marriage], so give them their share: God is witness to everything.

34Husbands should take good care of their wives, witha bi is interpreted as instrumental rather than causal. [the bounties] God has given to some more than others and with what they spend out of their own money. Righteous wives are devout and guard what God would have them guard in their husbands' absence. If you fear high-handednessb The verb nashaza from which nushuz is derived means ‘to become high’, ‘to rise’. See also verse 128, where the same word is applied to husbands. It applies to a situation where one partner assumes superiority to the other and behaves accordingly. from your wives, remind them [of the teachings of God], then ignore them when you go to bed, then hit them.c This signifies a single blow, as is clear from the circumstances of the revelation of this verse. See also Abdel Haleem, Understanding the Qurʾan, 46–54. If they obey you, you have no right to act against them: God is most high and great. 35If you [believers] fear that a couple may break up, appoint one arbiter from his family and one from hers. Then, if the couple want to put things right, God will bring about a reconciliation between them: He is all knowing, all aware.

36Worship God; join nothing with Him. Be good to your parents, to relatives, to orphans, to the needy, to neighbours near and far, to travellers in need, and to your slaves. God does not like arrogant, boastful people, 37who are miserly and order other people to be the same, hiding the bounty God has given them. We have prepared a humiliating torment for such ungrateful people. 38[Nor does He like those] who spend their wealth to show off, who do not believe in Him or the Last Day. Whoever has Satan as his companion has an evil companion! 39What harm would it do them to believe in God and the Last Day, and give charitably from the sustenance God has given them? God knows them well. 40He does not wrong anyone by as much as the weight of a speck of dust: He doubles any good deed and gives a tremendous reward of His own. 41What will they do when We bring a witness from each community, with you [Muhammad] as a witness against these people? 42On that day, those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Prophet will wish that the earth could swallow them up: they will not be able to hide anything from God.

Notes:

b In pre-Islamic Arabia, if a man died leaving a widow, her stepson or another man of his family could inherit her.

c Islam regards women who breastfeed other people's infants as their ‘milk-mothers’, not merely ‘wet nurses’.

a Slave women were often unclaimed war captives, who would not be in a position to dissolve any previous marriage. An owner was not permitted to touch a slave woman whose husband was with her (Abu Hanifa, in Razi).

b Literally ‘you are from one another’.

c The preposition min here is taken to have an explanatory rather than a partitive function, which would render the translation ‘some of what they have earned’.

a bi is interpreted as instrumental rather than causal.

b The verb nashaza from which nushuz is derived means ‘to become high’, ‘to rise’. See also verse 128, where the same word is applied to husbands. It applies to a situation where one partner assumes superiority to the other and behaves accordingly.

c This signifies a single blow, as is clear from the circumstances of the revelation of this verse. See also Abdel Haleem, Understanding the Qurʾan, 46–54.

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